James&Co More Sustainable Leather Fabrics


The James&Co brand began in 2012 with a focus on retailing outerwear tailored in cruelty-free vegan leather. Since 2018 with the significant developments in manufacturing cruelty-free leather alternatives in more sustainable textiles we have been pioneering the ditch of the harmful traditional PU and tailoring our products in the new textiles.

Until recently when more synthetic leather options have been developing, the alternative leather fabric was traditional polyurethane (PU). PU is a plastic coating applied to a fabric base. 

synthetic leather pu

'Most faux leathers consist of a knitted polyester base with a PVC or polyurethane (PU) coating. But because they're essentially plastic-based, they come with many of the same environmental problems of other synthetics. They're usually manufactured from fossil fuels and take a long time to break down once they reach the end of their useful life.'

However, PU is not eco-friendly because it contains the hazardous chemical DMF and is harmful to the environment and to workers in its manufacturing. 

why traditional pu is bad

Learn more

James&Co does not tailor its apparel in chemicals-based PU or PVC. The vegan more sustainable alternative fabrics used by James&Co are sourced from a number of innovative sources that have been expending significant R&D over the years in developing the alternative that is not chemicals-based and is less harmful to the environment. The leading fabric is water-based PU which achieves the same leather look without the harmful chemicals in PU or PVC. Note that we say 'more sustainable' in respect of WBPU and the plant-based innovations and not simply 'sustainable'.  This is because WBPU and plant-based synthetic lethers are kinder to environment and workers as they are chemical-free.  However they are not bio-degradable because WBPU - a percentage of which is in most plant-based fabrics - contains fossil fuels.      


covestro wbpu

  • waterbased PU or WBPU we call 'eco'

The earliest lab-grown alternative to traditional PU faux/vegan leather replaced the chemical DMF with water. This alternative is known as waterbased PU, or waterborne PU, or DMF-free PU. WBPU is the usual abbreviation. James&Co simply describes the fabric as 'eco'.

The development of WBPU is predominantly happening in Chinese factories in response to the expectation that traditional PU will ultimately be banned and to the commitment to sustainability.


This fabric has improved in quality for apparel & is available for James&Co to tailor its outerwear products in as it leads the way to ditch traditional PU fabric for more sustainable fabrics.  Read more about WBPU here

Leading retail brands such as Zara and H&M are also exploring the shift to this fabric, the critical determinator being the its quality for tailoring apparel.  As it focusses on the right alternative, Zara has listed the chemical DMF on its Restricted Substance List and banned factories from manufacturing with traditional PU.

zara selling wbpu jacket

WBPU is welcome as an eco-friendly alternative to solvent-based PU. However its manufacture still requires some application of fossil fuels – mostly petroleum-based products.  It is therefore not fully biodegradable and this puts it outside the scope of the circular economy.   

  • bio-based PU

Technology companies have been focussing on replacing the fossil fuels component of WBPU with environmentally benign inputs.

A more sustainable fabric being developed by technology companies such as Covestro is ‘bio-based PU’. The significant differentiator from WBPU is that bio-based PU is not fossil-fuel based – using instead renewable raw materials such as vegetable oils (castor oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil etc.).

It is said that bio-based components have a 30% better ecological footprint than comparable products made from fossil fuel-resources.

In addition to advantages of lower cost, no harmful chemicals, good thermal properties and acceptable strength properties which applications developed with bio-based PU have, biodegradability is significant.

  • CO2 based PU

A specific bio-based PU development is that which captures CO2 from the air and using a chemical process to convert it into new including fibres for textiles. Read more.

Bio-based PU and C02 based PU are not yet commercially available. Until this is the case, all more sustainable synthetic leathers will not be fully biodegradable as they will need the WBPU coating to create the leather look. 



There has been considerable movement with innovative use of plants and plant waste to develop more sustainable leather textiles.

The first development was the use of pineapple leaves to make Pinatex pineapple leaf leather.

Piñatex is woven from the long fibres in pineapple leaves, the byproduct of the pineapple industry, which are traditionally discarded or burned. The fibres in the leaves are fine, strong and flexible. They are harvested and stripped by pineapple farmers in the Philippines.

In addition to creating employment income for the farming communities at the harvesting stage, additional economic value is added for the communities by turning the leftover leaf biomass into a natural fertiliser or biofuel.

pinatex pineapple leaf lether worker
The fibres are turned into a mesh and finished into Pinatex in Spain.

We were approved to buy Pinatex pineapple leaf lether in 2018 by the owner corporation Ananas Anam. The gold fabric has made a sensational trench coat!

gold pinatex pineapple leaf lether trench coat


cactus leaf lether

Coming onto the market in 2019 was the innovative plant-based alternative made in Mexico from cactus leaves.

The fabric is made from nopal cactus leaves  grown on  plantation of the two entrepreneurs who developed it in the Mexican state of the Zacatecas. The two innovators were intrigued by the nopal cactus because it grows abundantly in Mexico and does not need any water to grow. They spent two years doing research and development for the way to turn nopal cactus leaves into cactus-based leather. 

Mature leaves are cut from organically grown cactus plants, cleaned, mashed, and left out in the sun to dry for three days prior to processing. It can then be dyed naturally using methods developed by the entrepreneurs' company. This makes for vegan leather that is certified organic and can hold up to regular usage for nearly a decade.  

The cactus leaf fabric is breathable, partially biodegradable and doesn’t contain any plastic or chemical solvents, pesticides or herbicides. It is soft, durable and very high-quality for apparel. 

jacket in cactus leaf lether

As with WBPU, the fabric is not totally biodegradable. This is because a small percentage of its composition is actually WBPU as the final coating - because it needs to be used to create the 'leather' look. There is as yet no ecological or bio based resin to substitute for a PU resin.   

This is a very good article about cactus lether to learn more about it.                           


lether made from grape skins

VEGEA fabric is made in Italy.  The word 'leather' does not appear in its title or any of its texts because legislation passed in Italy in 2020 forbids the use of the word 'leather' in any way to describe materials not derived from the remains of animals - including its use in conjunction with other terms such as eco-leather, vegan leather, faux leather and other synthetic fabrics. This is an important development for all stakeholders in the vegan leather market to watch as moves continue to push the legislation to other countries. Ultimately another word to describe synthetic leather look alternatives will be needed.

VEGEA is described as a vegan coated fabric or 'biomaterial'. A plant-based alternative material to synthetic oil-based non-renewable fossil-fuel based fabrics (PU and PVC) and animal-derived ones (real leather). The fabric is developed by a process for the valorization of wine waste: grape marc, that is composed by grape skins, stalks and seeds discarded during wine production.

Vegea is compliant with European regulations (REACH), solvent free animal friendly. The fabric is supple, breathable, highly resistent to abrasion.

As with cactus leave material, vegea has a coating of WBPU so it is not yet fully biodegradable. 


Apple skin leather is a bio-based material derived from organic applies grown in the Italian alps and a by-product of the apple juice industry. 

The innovative technology belongs to FRUMAT, an Italian company founded in 2008 in the northern region of Italy widely known for its apple production, FRUMAT was developed in response to the local issue of apple-waste and the increasing demand for ecological alternatives to leather and toxic faux/vegan leather. 

After juicing the apples harvested from an Italian orchard, the apple skins and pulp waste are then ground into a fine powder and harmless, non-toxic, organic pigment, combined with some amount of WBPU (can be up to 50%) and transforms into bio-based leather look. 

The repurposing of apple skin waste also keeps them from decomposing and producing methane that contributes to climate change. 


You can read more about the imperatives and opportunities to ditch traditional polyurethane for the more sustainable alternatives in our book. 3rd edition is now published on Amazon For The Planet By 2030. Why We Need To Switch To Sustainable Lether™ 3rd ed.

 cover of our book